Is there a specific instruction I should follow?
Menawhile... I found what is causing my issue. This is another MS application - "Intune Company Portal". Once I removed this app, Teams started. However, this application is required to pass the authentication. So, I will troubleshoot tomorrow and it will end up with 2 possible outomes:
1) I will find the workaround and share here
2) I will collect logs and share with you
Thank you for your assistance!
P.S. I tried to give to Company Portal permissions per your advice. It does not help.